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Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 35 to 42  LIGHT POLLUTION      Light pollution is an excessive, wasteful and obstructive light resulting from human activities. It is mostly seen in densely-populated cities and industrialized areas. The pollution includes the light used in factories and office buildings, commercial properties, streetlights, illuminated sporting venues and infrastructure. As beneficial as the invention of light and the development of industrialization have been to mankind, their secondary effect, light pollution, is adverse in multiple ways.       The two main types of light pollution recognized by environmentalists are light that intrudes on a natural setting and the use of disproportionate amount of light indoors. Light pollution may also be defined according to very specific categories into light trespass, glare and clutter. Light trespass happens when unwanted light enters someone’s property. For example, a neighbor turns on a bright light in his yard and this light enters a neighboring bedroom window, causing sleep deprivation or obstructing an evening view. Glare is the extreme contrast between light and dark areas such that the human eye has difficult in adjusting. Glare is not merely annoying, but bright lights on dark roads can obscure night vision for motorists temporarily, with accidents sometimes being the result. Clutter is the presence of numerous groups of lights. It may produce confusion and distract viewers. Badly designed street lights and neon advertising signs come under this category.       Even a small amount of light pollution can have a negative influence on its surrounding. For the novice astronomer, a little light can make it difficult to observe the night sky; this is the reason observatories are located in areas where light emissions are forbidden. For the human body, excessive light is detrimental. Ailments such as headaches, fatigue, stress, high blood pressure and anxiety are common to those who are constantly exposed to light. The effects of light pollution on animals are just devastating. Birds that migrate to the south for the winter are disoriented by lights on tall buildings, and they are sometimes attracted to these lights: millions die when they collide with these buildings. Zooplankton is unable to rise to the surface of a water body to eat algae because of bright light; the algae blooms overgrow, killing off other plants and destroying the water quality. The circadian rhythm of reptiles, insects and other animals is affected when light keeps them awake.      Although the United States government is aware of the problem, it has been a challenge to draw up and enforce lighting regulations for the entire country. Some cities have formulated their own standards and solutions regarding outdoor lighting, but on the whole, the same standards cannot be administered in every city. Some solutions include minimizing the use of light, using timers to turn off lights automatically, utilizing the most pertinent types of light, redesigning plans and using sodium light which emits a single wavelength of light that is easier to filter.  Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 30 to 34  FAMILY AND MONEY      The modern world is changing family relationships. The cost of living has had an influence on how the American family behaves. It may not be the best thing.       Several decades ago, the father went to work. His paycheck paid the bills. The mother stayed home.  She might have volunteered at a local church or a community program. Children went to school.  Sometimes they had a small job on weekends when they were teenagers.       In many parts of the United States, things are different. The cost of living is on the rise. The greatest increases in the cost of living are seen in property prices and in health care. Basically, one salary is not enough to buy or rent a house and pay the bills. As a result, both parents must work. This helps the family keep a roof over their heads, and they can go to the doctor when they need to.       When both parents work, it changes the amount of time that the child spends with them. Many parents put their children in day care. This has the benefit of ensuring the children’s care. But it also reduces the amount of time that parents spend with their children in their early years. What is more, day care is an extra expense. Both parents must work more.       During the school years, it is often the case that children come home before their parents do. They are called latchkey kids because they let themselves in the door. Mother is not waiting at home to open the door for the child. This time alone puts him at risk to things like drugs or crime. The child may get in trouble more often because he is not supervised.       Rising expenses are changing how families live. While working hard for better lives, they open themselves up to different risks. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the cost of living 30 years ago?