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Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. One of the biggest issues that eco lodges and green hotels face is the lack of a universal definition. How eco-friendly does a lodge or boutique hotel need to be to qualify? And who determines which accommodations will pass muster? Unfortunately, some of the world's most well-known and respected "green" certification programs are cost-prohibitive for many eco lodges, which are often relatively small and owned and operated by independent entrepreneurs rather than corporations. But there are numerous reputable certification programs that responsible travelers can look for before they book an eco lodge or hotel stay. Many - including Green Seal in the U.S. - are part of the Global Ecolabelling Network, a non-profit group comprised of 25 third - party organizations throughout the world. They are all devoted to improving, promoting and developing labelling systems for eco-friendly products and services. Arctic Tundra Lodge in Churchill, Manitoba Sponsored in part by the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) Criteria are widely considered the gold standard in “green” certification. These criteria involve effective sustainability planning, maximizing social and economic benefits for the local community, enhancing cultural heritage, and reducing negative impacts on the environment. Where the GSTC has guidelines for destinations, hotels and tour operators, Green Key Global is designed specifically for the lodging industry. Its flagship Eco-Rating Program, which evaluates properties on an environmental, social and economic level, has certified around 2,370 green hotels and eco lodges in 52 countries over the past 15 years. Green Globe is another popular certification program, offering training and education for hotels/resorts, attractions, organizations, cruise ships, and various tourism industry suppliers. Their global network of independent auditors provides third-party inspection and an internationally recognized seal of approval that's become increasingly popular over the past 25 years. The passage mainly discusses ____.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. Tourism will always have an impact on the places visited. Sometimes the impact is good, but often it is negative. For example, if lots of people visit one place, then this can damage the environment. The question is - how can we minimize the problems without preventing people from travelling and visiting places? The main aim of ecotourism is to reduce the negative impact that tourism has on the environment and local people. The idea is to encourage tourists to think about what they do when they visit a place. It's great to talk about protecting the environment, but how do you actually do this? There are a number of key points. Tourists shouldn't drop litter, they should stay on the paths, they shouldn't interfere with wildlife and they should respect local customs and traditions. Some people see ecotourism as a contradiction. They say that any tourism needs infrastructure - roads, airports and hotels. The more tourists that visit a place, the more of these are needed and, by building more of these, you can't avoid damaging the environment. But, of course, things aren't so black and white. Living in a place of natural beauty doesn't mean that you shouldn't benefit from things like better roads. As long as the improvements benefit the local people and not just the tourists, and the local communities are consulted on plans and changes, then is there really a problem? In 2002 the United Nations celebrated the "International Year of Ecotourism". Over the past twenty years, more and more people have started taking eco-holidays. In countries such as Ecuador, Nepal, Costa Rica and Kenya, ecotourism represents a significant proportion of the tourist industry. What is the main idea of the passage?
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. The biggest difference between an eco-lodge and a green hotel is the setting in which you'll find them. Eco lodges tend to be more remote, located in relatively pristine natural environments such as beaches, jungles and mountains. Green hotels, on the other hand, are more often associated with cities and towns. Eco lodges and green hotels both emphasize elements such as environmental responsibility and minimizing negative impact. The best ones offer renewable energy sources, recycling services, eco-friendly toiletries, energy efficient lighting, locally sourced food, organic linens and towels, non-toxic cleaning supplies, non-disposable dishes, water conservation methods and various other sustainability-focused initiatives. But eco lodges tend to be more dependent on the natural environment than green hotels. They are also generally more active in nature and wildlife conservation, more focused on educating visitors about the flora and fauna of local ecosystems, and more deeply connected with the area's indigenous culture (whose influence is often incorporated into the lodge's decor and restaurant menu). The best eco lodges also work to ensure positive relationships with the local people. They train and employ them at fair wages, take part in community development initiatives, offer activities that help visitors conserve and appreciate local customs, and contribute to the local economy. In this way, they reinforce the notion of ecotourism as a more sustainable long-term business model than altering or destroying habitats for quick financial gains. The passage mainly discusses ____.